Europe 200 BCE

The Celts still dominate much of Europe, but a new power, Rome, is on the rise and is now the leading power in the western Mediterranean.

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What is happening in Europe in 200BCE

The map shows the history of Europe in 200 BCE. In the eastern Mediterranean, the Greek city-states have experienced a glorious period of cultural progress, but also of intense in-fighting. In the western Mediterranean there is a new power on the rise, Rome.

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The Greeks

In the Mediterranean world, the huge Persian Empire made a major attempt to conquer the city-states of Greece. This the Greeks successfully resisted. Then, under the leadership of the city of Athens, they went on to register immense achievements in all fields of culture. Above all, Greek philosophers such as Socrates, Plato and Aristotle have laid many of the foundations for later Western thought.

By 200 BCE, however, powerful new kingdoms to the north and east overshadow the city-states of Greece. These large states have been carved out of the vast but short-lived empire of Alexander the Great, who led the Greeks on an astonishing series of conquests over the Persians and other peoples, as far as India.

These kingdoms are home to a new cosmopolitan civilization, a hybrid of Greek and Middle Eastern cultures which modern scholars label “Hellenistic“.

The Romans

To the west, a new power has made its appearance in history, Rome. The people of this city have expanded their power to control almost all Italy.  Then, having defeated Carthage, that ancient and wealthy city on the north coast of Africa, the Romans now dominate the western Mediterranean and eastern Spain.

The Celts

In northern Europe,  Celtic tribes have continued to spread out from Gaul to cover much of the continent, and have thrown out offshoots into northern Italy, the Balkans and even Asia Minor.

Next map, Europe 30 BCE

Dig Deeper:

Ancient Greece: history of a civilization

Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Kingdoms

The Rise of the Roman Empire

The Celts

Ancient European History

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