Greece and the Balkans 1914 CE

The Ottoman empire has been driven from most of Europe.

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What is happening in Greece and the Balkans in 1914CE

The Treaty of Berlin (1878), signed by the leading powers of Europe, recognized the full independence from the Turks of Serbia and Romania, and guaranteed self-government for Bulgaria within the Ottoman empire. Bosnia, whilst theoretically remaining a part of the Ottoman empire, was to be administered by Austria-Hungary. The treaty left left a lingering thirst for independence.

The Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Russian Empire were vying with each other for dominance in the Balkans, and the sudden occupation of Bosnia-Herzegovina (1908) by Austro-Hungary almost led to war with Russia.

Bulgaria was given complete independence from Turkey in 1908. In 1912-13 Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece drove the Ottomans out of most of their European territories in the First Balkan War – but then fought over the division of the conquered Ottoman territories in the Second Balkan War (1913-14 – this allowed the Ottomans to reclaim some of their lost territory). In all this upheaval Albania declared its independence.

The volatile situation brought the rivalry between Austro-Hungary and Russia to fever pitch, and it took only a spark to ignite a general war in Europe. This spark came with the assassination of the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, in Bosnia, in June 1914.

Next map, the Balkans in 1960

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