Egypt 3500 BCE

Ancient Egypt, one of the great civilizations of world history, is taking shape in the Nile Valley.

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What is happening in Egypt in 3500BCE

The roots of Ancient Egypt

One of the great civilizations of world history, Ancient Egypt, is beginning to emerge in North Africa. As a prelude to this development, powerful chiefdoms are emerging along the middle Nile valley.

The Gift of the Nile

One of the main roles of these chiefdoms is to control the flood waters of the Nile, in order to irrigate the lands along the river banks effectively. Only thus can the fields be made fertile and the growing population of the Nile valley fed.

This is key to the development of Ancient Egyptian civilization, as it requires the proper co-ordination of the work of thousands of people, in building canals, dykes and digging irrigation channels. The chiefs therefore exercise a high degree of control over the lives of their subjects.

An emerging civilization

The chiefs are served by a hierarchy of officials and overseers, groups of people who are developing the skills – in record keeping, mathematics, engineering and management – which will over the coming centuries bring to fruition the magnificent achievements of the civilization of Ancient Egypt after it has become a unified country (c. 3000 BCE).

Next map, Ancient Egypt in 2500 BCE

 

While the civilization of Ancient Egypt is taking shape, another civilization has already emerged. By this date the Sumerians in Mesopotamia have developed the first true cities in history, and also the first proper writing system.

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