Arabia 1648 CE

The Ottoman empire is the dominant power within the Arabian peninsula.

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What is happening in Arabia in 1648CE

In 1517, the Ottomans had come in from the west, bringing the Hejaz, with the Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina, under their control (though leaving local rulers, such as the Ali dynasty in the Hejaz, largely free to govern as their liked). This inaugurated a period of prosperity for the Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina, protected as they were by the Ottoman empire and with imperial patronage lavished on them. Yemen also came under Ottoman rule, but the latter were driven out in 1635.

The Portuguese were active in the Gulf from the start of the 16th century, capturing Hormuz and Muscat in 1507, and Bahrain in 1521. After the Ottomans had conquered Iraq in the 1530s, they too became began operations in the Gulf. Coming into conflict with the Portuguese, they ousted from Bahrain in 1602. The Portuguese were also expelled from Muscat by a local religious movement, whose leader founded the Yarubid dynasty of Oman. The Omanis then harried Portuguese shipping and bases along the east coast of Africa, considerably weakening their power.

Next map: Arabia 1789

 

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