Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia 1500 BCE
Farming, weaving, pottery and pyramids have all appeared in this region by this date.
What is happening in Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia in 1500BCE
The Pacific coast is a dry region, punctuated by streams and rivers which bring water down from the Andes in spring and early summer, often in raging floods, but are dry for the rest of the year. The offshore currents are some of the richest seas in the world for nutrients. Settled villages of marine hunter-gatherers have grown up here at least since 8000 BCE, with farming beginning in the 6th millennium BCE. Since then it has gradually become more important, and populations of farmers have grown up in the river valleys on the Pacific coast, to exploit the streams and the fertile mud deposited during the seasonal flooding. Irrigation systems have developed, and around 2000 BCE large communities with populations running into thousands emerged; large pyramids, of design and construction which would become familiar to later phases of Andean civilization, are already being constructed. Pottery and loom weaving are practiced.
A short distance inland, where the land rises sharply to the High Andes mountains, a shift from hunting to herding llamas is taking place, and an agriculture based on a small set of high-altitude plants, mainly potato, oca and quinoa, has appeared. Populations are expanding rapidly, and trade links between the peoples of the coast and the highlands are developing.