Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia 1789 CE

Peru has experienced administrative and economic decline.

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What is happening in Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia in 1789CE

This region has seen a decline in its administrative and economic status over the past few years. The establishment of new viceroyalties to the north and east means that Lima is no longer the most important centre of Spanish government in South America, and the loss of the huge Potosi silver mines of Upper Peru (modern-day Bolivia) to the newly-created viceroyalty de la Plata, centred on Buenos Aires, has been a particular blow. Moreover, the economic reforms of the Spanish government mean that no longer does all the trade of Spanish South America have to pass through Lima. Nevertheless, this decline should not be exaggerated; the economy has benefited from a general upswing in Spanish South America’s prosperity brought about by the economic reforms. Moreover, this region continues as a wealthy centre of silver mining, even though this is now in long-term decline. Trade liberalisation has seen the rise of Guyaquil as a flourishing port.

Much of the Indian population remains as forced labour for the mines, and the majority of the rest work as serfs on the large estates. A major revolt in 1780-3, led by a descendant of the Inca kings, caused considerable disruption.

Next map, Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia in 1837

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