Spain and Portugal 500 BCE
Phoenician and Greek colonies cling to the Spanish coast.
What is happening in Spain and Portugal in 500BCE
Thriving Phoenician trading colonies, which by 500 BCE had come under the control of Carthage, were located on the southern coast of the peninsula. So too were a smaller number of Greek colonies. The influence of these newcomers has led to rise of new semi-urban cultures in southern and eastern Spain. Their large settlements included many elements in building styles and other techniques borrowed from the Greeks and especially the Phoenicians. They had also adapted the writing systems of the Phoenicians and Greeks, and used metal coinage.
In the rest of the peninsula, Celtic culture predominated, based on numerous tribes and including the standard hill-top forts of these warlike societies. These also showed influences radiating from the south, but these got steadily weaker towards the north and west.