Greece and Persia 481 BCE

The Greek city states of western Asia Minor fell under Persian control. They soon revolted, which led to war between the Greeks and the Persians.

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The Greeks live in hundreds of small city states, situated on the margins of the ancient civilizations of the Middle East.

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A huge new empire now covers most of the Middle East. This is the Persian Empire, the largest of all the empires of the ancient world.

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The Persian Wars left Athens and Sparta as the leading cities of Greece. This is the Golden Age of Athens.

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Athens and Sparta, and their respective allies, fought long and bitter wars with each other. Sparta emerged as the victor.

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The kingdom of Macedonia, regarded as semi-barbarous by other Greeks, now dominates the country.

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Alexander the Great, one of the most successful military commanders in history, has led his army in the conquest of the huge Persian Empire.

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Alexander's huge empire soon broke up, but a hybrid civilization emerged over a huge area which mingled Greek and Middle Eastern elements in a rich cultural fusion.

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The Hellenistic kingdoms and Greek city-states are being squeezed from the Parthians in the east and the Romans in the west.

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The Hellenistic kingdoms were swallowed up by the Roman and Parthian empires, but their civilization continued to flourish for many centuries.

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