Russia 1648 CE

The Russians have freed themselves from the Golden Horde and have expanded far into Siberia.

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What is happening in Russia in 1648CE

Under Ivan the Great (1462-1505), Muscovy expanded hugely at the expense of its neighbours, annexing Novgorod (1478) and taking much territory from Poland-Lithuania (1493-1503). Ivan successfully asserted his independence from the Golden Horde (1480). He took the title Sovereign of All the Russias (1497) and adopted the additional title of Caesar, or Tsar.

Ivan’s successors continued the expansion of Muscovy. However, in c. 1560, Ivan IV (“The Terrible”, reigned 1533-84) began a reign of terror. By his death he had eliminated all other members of the royal line, and the nobles had to elect one of themselves, Boris Godunov, as Tsar. Unfortunately, his rule was engulfed by revolt and foreign invasion, and Muscovy descended into chaos. Eventually a group of nobles elected a new Tsar, the 16-year old Michael Romanov (1613). His ministers set about restoring stability, peace and prosperity, a task in which they largely succeeded. Alexis (1645-76) now reigns as Tsar.

The decline of the Golden Horde has allowed a great movement of Russian peoples eastward into Siberia. Under Ivan the Terrible, the new territories are populated to a great extent by people fleeing his persecutions. Not far behind the migrants are the Russian authorities, imposing some kind of control over the new territories, but this is a much less onerous style of rule than in the Russian heartlands.

Next map, Russia in 1789

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