Italy 1648 CE

Incessant conflict between the Italian states has led to the Peninsula coming under Spanish domination.

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What is happening in Italy in 1648CE

The intense rivalry between the Italian states drew in neighbouring powerful states and Italy became the battleground between the French and Hapsburg monarchies (1494-1559), with consequent misery (notably the terrible sack of Rome by Hapsburg troops in 1527) and loss of independence for Italian states. The treaty of Cateau-Cambresis (1559) imposed Spanish Hapsburg dominance in Italy. Since then the Spanish have dominated Italy, including the kingdom of Naples. The only significant states which retain their independence are Tuscany (now a Grand Duchy under the Medici), the Dukedom of Savoy, and the Republic of Venice.

The Republic of Venice remains an important Mediterranean power, but its position in the Eastern Mediterranean is being progressively whittled down by the Ottoman Turks. At one time it looked as though the Ottoman navy would dominate the entire Mediterranean Sea, but at the decisive battle of Lepanto (1571) the Spanish, Venetian and Papal forces checked Ottoman naval expansion.

Next map, Italy 1789

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