Africa 2005 CE

All European powers have withdrawn from their empires in Africa.

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What is happening in Africa in 2005CE


Decolonization was mostly completed within a few years of 1960, though white minorities effectively continued colonial rule in South Africa and Rhodesia for somewhat longer, whilst the Portuguese hung on in their possessions in Angola and Mozambique.

Since independence, African countries, with very few exceptions, have experienced political instability, ethnic and religious strife, military dictatorship, corruption, entrenched poverty, and a lethal HIV/AIDS pandemic. With the end of the Cold War, however, and the cessation of the destructive international rivalries within Africa, a more constructive approach to Africa’s problems has been evident, both on the part of the international community and within Africa itself.

The end of Apartheid

Recent years have also seen the end of white rule in South Africa and Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), and freedom for Angola and Mozambique. In the former, the apartheid system was brought to an end in a peaceful transition to multi-racial rule, largely brokered by the charismatic Nelson Mandela.


However, some parts of the continent have continued a descent into anarchy – above all in the Congo, which has seen the largest scale war-related death-toll anywhere in the world since the World War 2 – but also in Liberia and Sierra Leone. A fearful genocide in the small country of Rwanda (1994) shocked the entire world.

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European World Empires

The Cold War

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