India and South Asia 2500 BCE
One of the earliest civilizations in world history has emerged in ancient India, the Indus Valley civilization.
What is happening in India and South Asia in 2500BCE
The Indus Valley civilization
Over the past thousand years, towns and cities have appeared in the floodplain of the Indus river valley, covering a vast area of northern India. Some of these cities are amongst the largest in the world at this time. The history of this ancient civilization is very obscure, but it shows signs of having spread from a single center, perhaps near the delta of the river Indus, across much of modern-day Pakistan and north-western India. The towns and cities show a high degree of uniformity of layout and design. The cities contain what are thought to have been granaries, public baths – perhaps for ritual purposes – and the earliest known sewage and drainage systems. In several of the cities the streets are laid out along a grid pattern – apparently the first case of town planning in history. There is an active trade with Mesopotamia. There is also evidence of a written script, but this has as yet not been deciphered by modern scholars.
The rest of India
In the rest of India, simpler, more ancient modes of life prevail, a patchwork of farming villages, hunter-gatherer bands and semi-nomadic pastoralists.