The Greeks and the Persians 30 BCE
The Hellenistic kingdoms and Greek city-states are being squeezed from the Parthians in the east and the Romans in the west.
The Greeks live in hundreds of small city states, situated on the margins of the ancient civilizations of the Middle East.
The Greek city states of western Asia Minor fell under Persian control. They soon revolted, which led to war between the Greeks and the Persians.
The Persian Wars left Athens and Sparta as the leading cities of Greece. This is the Golden Age of Athens.
Athens and Sparta, and their respective allies, fought long and bitter wars with each other. Sparta emerged as the victor.
Alexander's huge empire soon broke up, but a hybrid civilization emerged over a huge area which mingled Greek and Middle Eastern elements in a rich cultural fusion.