What is happening in Korea in 1453CE
In 1224 movable type printing is invented in Korea. This important development is an illustration of the precocious inventiveness that Korean civilization has shown throughout its history.
Korea fell under Mongol overlordship after a prolonged struggle starting in the 1230’s. Externally, the Koryo kings were now vassals of the huge Mongol empire; internally, they were increasingly powerless. The estate-owning aristocrats extended their holdings at the expense of the peasantry, unchecked by the government (which was in the hands of the same aristocrats). This reduced tax revenues, which had mostly come from the free peasantry and, also, the pool of potential recruits for the army, also traditionally recruited from this class.
With the ejection of the Mongols from China in 1368, Korea also regained its independence. In 1392, a group of junior Confucian scholar-officials, supported by the army commander Yi Song-gye, seize control of the government. The Koryo dynasty was dethroned and Yi was installed as the founder of the new Choson dynasty.
The new regime established Confucianism as the state ideology. The aristocracy retained its importance as the recruiting-ground for the bureaucracy; indeed public service is the only profession open to its members.