India: the Medieval Era 850 CE
The history of northern India from the 8th to 10th centuries was dominated by the struggles between three powerful kingdoms for dominance. Holding the imperial city of Kanauj was their main objective.
By the mid-6th century the Gupta empire, the last of the great states of ancient India, had vanished.
In the first half of the 7th century, the north was conquered by the warrior-emperor, Harsha Vardhana.
Harsha’s empire at once fell apart after his death, but Pulakeshin founded the century-long Chalukya empire.
Islam has established a firm foothold in the subcontinent.
Northern India was ravaged by destructive raids by a fearsome Muslim warlord from central Asia. In the south, the Chola kingdom had emerged as a great maritime power.
Muslim rulers were beginning to conquer sizeable territories in India.
The first great Muslim state in India has emerged in India territory.
The Muslim sultanate of Delhi has expanded to cover northern India.
The sultanate of Delhi went on to cover very nearly the whole of the Indian subcontinent …
…but only for a few brief years.
The Delhi sultanate continued its decline until it had lost most of its territory.