Civilization: Moghul Empire, India

This article will deal with the huge Mogul empire (also spelled Moghul, Mughal empire).

This empire was founded by a central Asian prince called Babur, who defeated the last of the rulers of the Delhi Sultanate at the battle of Panikert in 1526. His grandson, Akbar (reigned 1556-1605), had to reconquer his grandfather’s conquests and went on the consolidate Moghul rule across northern and central India. Asoka’s grandson, Aurangzeb (reigned 1658-1707), succeeded in expanding the empire into the far south. By the end of his reign, however, rebellions were breaking out in different parts of the empire, which he was keeping together only with difficulty. After 1707 the empire went into steep decline as large chunks of it drifted out of central control. Nevertheless the regional rulers by and large acknowledged Mogul suzerainty until an alien power, the British,  came to establish its control over the subcontinent.

The period of Indian civilization covered by the Moghul empire is noted for the beautiful hybrid Indo-Islamic culture that flourished under it. This had already been emerging under the Delhi Sultanate and other Islamic states in India, but reached its fruition under the Moghuls. It can bee seem most majestically in the Taj Mahal, one of he most famous buildings in the world; and also in numerous forts and palaces dotted around India and Pakistan.


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