history map of North Africa 500BC

North Africa
- 500BC

Carthage was founded shortly after 1000 BC by Phoenician colonists from Syria. In the following centuries the city flourished, and has become the great trade emporia of the western Mediterranean, dominating not only with its merchant ships but with its fighting navy as well.

To secure its position, commercially and militarily, Carthage has set up colonies along the North African coast, in the Balearic Islands and in Spain, and has established control over the cities of western Sicily. 


 
  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    Phoenician and Greek colonies cling to the Spanish coast

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  • Italy

    Italy

    The peoples of Italy, including the Romans, have come under the influence of Greek and Etruscan civilization

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  • Greece and the Balkans

    Greece and the Balkans

    A great civilization has emerged in Greece, based on hundreds of small city-states

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  • Africa

    Africa

    Bantu farmers from West Africa are beginning to spread out across the continent

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history map of North Africa 200BC

North Africa
500BC - 200BC

The great city-state of Carthage has recently been defeated in two long, bitter wars with her arch-rival, Rome. In the second war (218 – 202 BC), her great general, Hannibal, came near to utterly destroying Roman power. He was unable to do so because Rome's allies remained largely loyal to her, and, after years of fruitless campaigning, he returned to Carthage, only to lead the Carthaginians to final defeat at the battle of Zama (202 BC).

As a result of her defeats, Carthage’s overseas dominions have been stripped from her, and have come under Roman control. Nearer home, Berber kingdoms have emerged in North Africa. These have been drawn into the struggles between Carthage and Rome, as allies of one side or the other. The best known of these kingdoms is Numidia, which has become Rome’s main ally in the region.

For a dynamic and informative look at the Rise of the Roman Empire, check out our iPad app here


 
  • Italy

    Italy

    The cities and tribes of central and southern Italy have come under the firm leadership of Rome

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  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    Carthaginian and Roman armies have contested much of Spain

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  • Africa

    Africa

    Trade routes across the Sahara desert are being pioneered, while, to the south, Bantu farmers continue their swift expansion across the continent

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history map of North Africa 30BC

North Africa
200BC - 30BC

Carthage began to recover her commercial prosperity after defeat in the 2nd Punic War, but this only aroused the fear of the Romans. In 146 BC they destroyed the city once and for all, selling 50,000 of her people into slavery. Other Carthaginian cities such as Utica and Hadrumetum sided with Rome in this struggle and survived under Roman authority. During the first century the Berber kingdom of Numidia was brought under Roman control after prolonged fighting, but remained a client kingdom until the time of Julius Caesar, when it was brought into the Roman province of Africa. At that same time a Roman colony was planted on the site of the old city of Carthage. Beyond the Roman frontier nomadic Berber tribes continue to carry out small-scale raids, whilst the kingdom of Mauritania, emerging in the late 2nd century BC, has become virtually a client state of the Romans.

 

For a dynamic and informative look at the Rise of the Roman Empire, check out our iPad app here


 
  • Italy

    Italy

    The free inhabitants of Italy all now enjoy full Roman citizenship, and provide Rome with the bulk of its soldiers and officials

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  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    Roman armies have slowly conquered most of Spain

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  • Africa

    Africa

    North Africa is now part of the Roman empire, while in central Africa the Bantu expansion continues

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history map of North Africa 200AD

North Africa
30BC - 200AD

Roman control in North Africa was completed under the emperor Claudius, when the kingdom of Mauritania was annexed. The rest of the region is disturbed now and again by small-scale raids by the nomadic Berber tribes of the desert, but the imperial frontier has been pushed out to the south and the border tribes settled on farmland to form a buffer between the desert and the Romanized zone. This has experienced a general peace for the past two centuries. North Africa has become one of the most prosperous regions within the Roman Empire, with many flourishing cities. Carthage is one of the largest and wealthiest cities in the Roman world. By this date many Roman senators are from North African backgrounds, and the current emperor, Septimius Severus, is himself an African. Much of Rome’s grain comes from the region, which also produces olive oil and fish, as well as wild animals for the circus.  

 

For a dynamic and informative look at the Rise of the Roman Empire, check out our iPad app here


 
  • Italy

    Italy

    Italy holds a privileged position within the Roman empire

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  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal have become thoroughly Romanized after centuries of Roman rule

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history map of North Africa 500AD

North Africa
200AD - 500AD

In the 5th century, during the general disintegration of Roman power in the western empire, North Africa was invaded by a German tribe, the Vandals. These have been able to establish a powerful kingdom, and have become a significant naval power, dominating the western Mediterranean. In 455 the Vandals attacked Rome itself. Their control over the rich grainlands of North Africa, and their denial of grain to the inhabitants of Rome, has had an even more marked impact on the decline of the imperial city. Nevertheless, within their own territory, the Vandals have taken to Roman life and culture, and preserve a level of stability which has allowed trade to recover to a certain extent.

 

For a close-up look at the Fall of the Roman Empire, check out our iPad app here


 
  • Egypt

    Egypt

    Egypt is a province of the Eastern Roman Empire

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  • Europe

    Europe

    The western Roman empire has fallen to German invaders, but the eastern Roman empire remains intact

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  • Italy

    Italy

    In Italy, Roman admininstration and society remains largely intact under the rule of the Ostrogoths

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  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal have experienced much destruction, but the old Roman civilization endures under Visigothic rule

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  • Africa

    Africa

    A powerful new kingdom is arising in Ethiopia, while in West Africa trade routes across the Sahara are developing

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  • West Africa

    West Africa .

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history map of North Africa 750AD

North Africa
500AD - 750AD

The Vandal kingdom in North Africa flourished until 534, when it was overthrown by a small but highly effective Byzantine army under the command of the brilliant general, Belisarius. North Africa then remained under Byzantine rule until Arab armies swept in from Egypt in the late-7th century. The Berber tribes of North Africa were quickly incorporated into the Islamic community, a process assisted by the similarities between Berber and Arab lifestyles and tribal structures. Berbers formed a large part of the army which, almost immediately after their own conquest, went on to conquer Spain.

 

For a great close-up on the Rise of Islam, check out our iPad app here


 
  • Europe

    Europe

    Medieval Europe is beginning to emerge from the wreckage of the Ancient World.

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  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    Muslim forces from North Africa have conquered most of present-day Spain and Portugal.

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  • Italy

    Italy

    In Italy, long wars have caused massive destruction, and the peninsula is now divided between the Lombards and Byzantines

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  • Egypt

    Egypt

    Egypt has become a province of the Islamic Caliphate

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  • Africa

    Africa

    Wealthy kingdoms are emerging in West Africa

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  • West Africa

    West Africa .

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history map of North Africa 979AD

North Africa
750AD - 979AD

From the mid-8th century, North Africa fell away from effective rule by the Caliphs, now ruling from distant Baghdad, and came under the rule of independent governors. However, these local dynasties were short-lived. The Berbers, perhaps because of their egalitarian tribal structures, were particularly attracted to the more puritanical forms of Islam. In the early years of the 10th century, North Africa was swept by a fervent Islamic movement, that of the Shi'ite Fatimids. The Fatimid leaders united the whole of North Africa under their rule before conquering westward into Egypt and beyond. At this date they have recently relocated their capital from near Tunis to Cairo, in Egypt.


 
  • Europe

    Europe

    Western Europe experiences internal wars and external attacks which bring widespread insecurity and lead to the rise of feudalism



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  • Italy

    Italy

    Italy has become fragmented amongst several different states

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  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    Muslim Spain is the most prosperous region of Western Europe

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  • Egypt

    Egypt

    Under the Fatimids, Egypt becomes the leading centre of Islamic civilization

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  • Africa

    Africa

    West African kingdoms flourish

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  • West Africa

    West Africa .

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history map of North Africa 1215AD

North Africa
979AD - 1215AD

Having conquered Egypt, the Fatimids neglected the Maghreb and allowed a regional dynasty called the Zirids to take control. Zirid power soon fragmented into three independent states. The Maghreb was then deeply affected by a migration of Bedouin tribes westwards from Egypt. This caused immense disruption, and undermined urban life and culture in the region.

In the 11th and 12th centuries North Africa fell under the control of two successive Islamic movements, the Almoravids and the Almohads. Both these conquered not only North Africa but also Andalusia. In the past few years, however, the Christian victory at Las Navas de Tolosa (1212) in Spain has forced the Almohads back to the Maghreb.


 
  • Italy

    Italy

    In Italy, the northern cities, above all Venice, are growing in wealth and power, while in the south Norman adventurers have created one of the most amazing kingdoms of the Middle Ages

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  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    The Christian kingdoms advance as Muslim Spain fragments into many small emirates

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  • Egypt

    Egypt

    Egypt is now under the dynasty of the renowned Muslim leader, Saladin

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  • Africa

    Africa

    The expansion of trade in West Africa is leading to the rise of new kingdoms

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  • Europe

    Europe

    European feudalism is at its height



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  • West Africa

    West Africa .

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history map of North Africa 1453AD

North Africa
1215AD - 1453AD

Having been ousted from Spain, Almohad power soon collapsed in North Africa as well as it fell victim to internal strife and became fragmented amongst regional dynasts. In the 1230's independent dynasties became established at Tunis, at Tiemcen and at Fez, in Morocco, and the Maghreb became divided along lines very similar to the present day.

Over the past few centuries, the people of North Africa have become mainly Arab-speaking, thanks to the large-scale immigration of Arab tribes into the region from the 11th century onwards.

 

For the Black Death's impact on North Africa, check out our iPad app here


 
  • Africa

    Africa

    New kingdoms are emerging in different parts of Africa

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  • Europe

    Europe

    The old feudal order and is beginning to give way to early modern Europe

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  • Egypt

    Egypt

    Egypt is now ruled by a class of slave-soldiers, the Mamluqs

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  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    The Christian kingdoms advance as Muslim Spain fragments into many small emirates

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  • Italy

    Italy

    In Italy, the Italian Renaissance is in full swing

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  • West Africa

    West Africa .

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history map of North Africa 1648AD

North Africa
1453AD - 1648AD

From the early 16th century the coastline of North Africa has become a haven for "corsairs", sea-raiders who range ever further across the seas, capturing Christian ships, enslaving their crews and passengers, and then ransoming them for their freedom. These activities have continued despite (or indeed because of) the Maghreb being incorporated into the Ottoman empire. The region has retained a great deal of autonomy, being ruled by its own deys.

Morocco has experienced a different history. In the late 16th century the ruler of Morocco sent an army across the Sahara desert and conquered the huge Songhai empire of West Africa. For a time, Moroccan power straddled the Sahara. The difficulties of keeping such an empire together have proved too much, and by this date the Moroccan colonies on the Niger are virtually inpendendent states.


 
  • Europe

    Europe

    Developments such as the Renaissance, the Reformation, and the expansion of trade and colonization throughout the world, have transformed Europe

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  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    Spain is a united country with a vast overseas empire

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  • Italy

    Italy

    Incessant conflict between the Italian states has led to the Peninsula coming under Spanish domination

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  • Egypt

    Egypt

    Egypt is now a part of the Ottoman empire

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  • Africa

    Africa

    Large numbers of Africans are being taken to the Americas as slaves

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  • West Africa

    West Africa .

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history map of North Africa 1789AD

North Africa
1648AD - 1789AD

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  • Africa

    Africa

    The Atlantic Slave Trade is at its height, and having a destructive impact on wide areas of the African interior

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  • Europe

    Europe

    The foundations for worldwide scientific and military dominance are being laid in the struggles between European nations

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  • Italy

    Italy

    Italy has become a magnet for European aristocrats visiting it on the "Grand Tour"

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  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    Spain has become virtually a satellite of France.

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  • Egypt

    Egypt

    Although officially a part of the Ottoman empire, Egypt is really ruled by the Mamluqs

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history map of North Africa 1837AD

North Africa
1789AD - 1837AD

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  • Africa

    Africa

    The Zulu conquests are causing turmoil over a large part of south and central Africa

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  • Europe

    Europe

    Europe continues to be transformed by intellectual change and industrial expansion

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  • Italy

    Italy

    The movement for Italian independence and unity is growing

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  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    Both Spain and Portugal have lost their overseas empires in South America

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  • Egypt

    Egypt

    Egypt is now semi-independent from the Ottoman empire

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history map of North Africa 1871AD

North Africa
1837AD - 1871AD

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  • Africa

    Africa

    European explorers have visited the interior of Africa

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  • Europe

    Europe

    Nationalism and industrialization continue to transform Europe

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  • Italy

    Italy

    After many difficulties Italy has become a united country

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  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    Both Spain and Potugal have experienced political instability

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  • Egypt

    Egypt

    The Suez Canal has been opened

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history map of North Africa 1914AD

North Africa
1871AD - 1914AD

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  • Europe

    Europe

    European nations now rule much of the world, but their rivalries are now leading them into the First World War

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  • Africa

    Africa

    The European powers have divided almost the whole of Africa up between them

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  • Italy

    Italy

    Despite weak government, Italy has an expanding industrial economy

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  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    Portugal is now a republic

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  • Egypt

    Egypt

    Egypt is now effectively a part of the British empire

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history map of North Africa 1960AD

North Africa
1914AD - 1960AD

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  • Europe

    Europe

    Europe has experienced two devastating world wars, and is now divided between East and West

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  • Africa

    Africa

    The European nations are starting to withdraw from the empires in Africa

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  • Italy

    Italy

    After the defeat of Mussolini in World War 2, Italy has become a leading member of the European Community

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  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal are ruled by dictatorships

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  • Egypt

    Egypt

    Egypt is now ruled by President Nasser

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history map of North Africa 2005AD

North Africa
1960AD - 2005AD

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  • Europe

    Europe

    Most of Europe now belongs to the EU

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  • Africa

    Africa

    All European powers have withdrawn from their empires in Africa

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  • Italy

    Italy

    Despite a series of weak governments Italy has had a thriving economy

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  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal have become democracies and members of the EU

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  • Egypt

    Egypt

    Egypt is now ruled by President Mubarak

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    INSTRUCTIONS: Hover map for summary and tap to zoom. Press icons to change the date of the map. Drag timeline for more historical periods.