history map of Europe 3500BC

Europe
- 3500BC

Europe

For the past two thousand years or so, farming has slowly been spreading throughout Europe, and now covers most of the continent. People live in small village communities, mostly practicing a mixed economy of agriculture and hunting and gathering. To the north the hunting and gathering elements predominate.

Next map, Europe 2500 BC

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  • Middle East

    Middle East

    The first civilizations in world history, those of Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt, are emerging

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history map of Europe 2500BC

Europe
3500BC - 2500BC

The previous centuries has seen nomadic peoples from the central Asian steppes, speaking Indo-European languages, coming into eastern and central Europe. Their domestication of horses has given them a military edge, and they seem to have imposed themselves upon the earlier populations as a ruling class.

Material progress has continued for the past thousand years. Long-range trade networks are becoming established throughout the continent, and linking Europe to the Middle East. Copper is coming into use, starting in southern Europe and spreading into eastern and central areas of the continent.

Next map, Europe 1500 BC

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  • Turkey

    Turkey

    Trade is drawing Asia Minor into the orbit of Mesopotamian civilization

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  • Middle East

    Middle East

    The civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia are now flourishing in the Middle East

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history map of Europe 1500BC

Europe
2500BC - 1500BC

Over the past thousand years Europe has become coverd by a network of Bronze Age farming cultures, ruled for the most part by powerful chiefs and warrior elites. Much of eastern and central Europe is home to Indo-European speakers, ancestors of the Celts, Germans, Italians and Illyrians.

In the south east corner of the continent, in Greece, an important development in world history has taken place. Civilization has arrived from the Middle East, with its already ancient cities and empires, by way of Crete and the Aegean.

Next map, Europe 1000 BC

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  • Greece and the Balkans

    Greece and the Balkans

    The first literate civilizations in European history flourish - the Minoan on Crete and the Mycenaean in Greece

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  • Turkey

    Turkey

    The Hittite empire in Asia Minor is one of the leading powers of the age

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  • Middle East

    Middle East

    The powerful Bronze Age empires of Egypt, the Mitanni, the Hittites and Babylonia dominate the Middle East

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history map of Europe 1000BC

Europe
1500BC - 1000BC

Over the past few centuries the peoples of Europe have experienced widespread disruption as the peoples of the Tumulus cultures have expanded out from their central Europe homelands, just before 1200 BC. The train of migrations and invasions that this set in motion has had a huge impact on the wider world. It probably caused the fall of the first civilization on the European mainland, that of the Mycenaeans in Greece, and led to the violent eruption of the “Sea Peoples” from southern Europe into Middle Eastern history.

However, at around this time, civilizing influences from the Middle East begin again to be felt by the peoples of south-eastern Europe. Phoenician merchants are developing new trading networks across the Mediterranean Sea. They bring with them knowledge of the great civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt - and also an important new tool, alphabetic writing.

Within Europe itself, the peoples of the old Tumulus cultures are now distributed around western, central and southern parts of the continent. Over the next few centuries they will become Celts, Germans, Slavs and Italians.

Next map, Europe 500 BC

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  • Greece and the Balkans

    Greece and the Balkans

    The Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations have vanished, and Greece is now home to illiterate tribal societies

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  • Turkey

    Turkey

    The Hittite empire has suffered catastrophe at the hands of barbarian invaders

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  • Middle East

    Middle East

    Invasions have devastated the old centres of civilization, but important new developments, such as the use of iron, the appearance of the alphabet and the rise of Israel, with its monotheistic religion, have taken place

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history map of Europe 500BC

Europe
1000BC - 500BC

Over the last few centuries the coming of the Iron Age to Europe has led to a large growth in populations throughout the continent, as well as great advances in culture. On the coasts and islands of the Mediterranean Sea - of Greece and the Aegean, southern Italy and Sicily, the southern coasts of France and Spain, and north Africa - hundreds of city-states now flourish.

The emergence of the Classical city-state in the Mediterranean world has allowed one of the most brilliant civilizations in all human history to develop, that of ancient Greece. Their small, fiercely competitive republics provide a fruitful environment for advances in many branches of endeavour: artistic, intellectual and political.

To the north, the Celts now cover western Europe from Spain in the west to Britain in the north. Peoples closely related to them, both ethnically and culturally, dominate central Europe.

Next map, Europe 200 BC

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  • France

    France

    The area of modern France is inhabited by warlike Celtic tribes

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  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    Phoenician and Greek colonies cling to the Spanish coast

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  • Italy

    Italy

    The peoples of Italy, including the Romans, have come under the influence of Greek and Etruscan civilization

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  • Greece and the Balkans

    Greece and the Balkans

    A great civilization has emerged in Greece, based on hundreds of small city-states

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  • North Africa

    North Africa

    The great trading city of Carthage is located in North Africa

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  • Turkey

    Turkey

    For centuries a leading centre of civilization, Asia Minor is now part of the Persian empire

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  • Middle East

    Middle East

    A succession of great empires - the Assyrian, the Babylonian, and now the Persian - have dominated the Middle East for the past few centuries

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history map of Europe 200BC

Europe
500BC - 200BC

In the Mediterranean world, the city-states of Greece, where immense cultural achievements have been registered over the past three centuries, are now overshadowed by powerful new kingdoms to the north and east, carved out of the conquests of Alexander the Great. These kingdoms are home to a new cosmopolitan civilization, which modern scholars label "Hellenistic".

To the west, a new power has made its appearance in history, Rome. She has risen to control Italy and, having defeated Carthage, that ancient and wealthy city on the north coast of Africa, now dominates the western Mediterranean and eastern Spain.

In northern Europe,  Celtic tribes have continued to spread out from Gaul to cover much of the continent, and have thrown out offshoots into northern Italy, the Balkans and even Asia Minor.

Next map, Europe 30 BC

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  • Greece and the Balkans

    Greece and the Balkans

    The Greek city-states are buffeted by the great powers of the region

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  • Italy

    Italy

    The cities and tribes of central and southern Italy have come under the firm leadership of Rome

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  • France

    France

    The area of modern France is now dominated by the Celtic La Tene culture

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  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    Carthaginian and Roman armies have contested much of Spain

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  • North Africa

    North Africa

    The city of Carthage has had its power weakened by Rome

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  • Ancient Rome

    Ancient Rome

    The city of Rome has, through tough fighting and wise diplomacy, become the leading power in the western Mediterranean

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  • Ancient Rome

    Ancient Rome

    The city of Rome has, through tough fighting and wise diplomacy, become the leading power in the western Mediterranean

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  • Ancient Rome

    Ancient Rome .

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  • Ancient Rome

    Ancient Rome .

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  • Ancient Rome

    Ancient Rome .

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  • Ancient Rome

    Ancient Rome .

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  • Ancient Rome

    Ancient Rome

    The city of Rome has, through tough fighting and wise diplomacy, become the leading power in the western Mediterranean

    .

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  • Ancient Rome

    Ancient Rome

    The city of Rome has, through tough fighting and wise diplomacy, become the leading power in the western Mediterranean

    .

    click to view
  • Ancient Rome

    Ancient Rome

    The city of Rome has, through tough fighting and wise diplomacy, become the leading power in the western Mediterranean

    .

    click to view
  • Ancient Rome

    Ancient Rome

    The city of Rome has, through tough fighting and wise diplomacy, become the leading power in the western Mediterranean

    .

    click to view
  • Ancient Rome

    Ancient Rome

    The city of Rome has, through tough fighting and wise diplomacy, become the leading power in the western Mediterranean

    .

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  • Ancient Rome

    Ancient Rome

    The city of Rome has, through tough fighting and wise diplomacy, become the leading power in the western Mediterranean

    .

    click to view
  • Ancient Rome

    Ancient Rome

    The city of Rome has, through tough fighting and wise diplomacy, become the leading power in the western Mediterranean

    .

    click to view
  • Ancient Rome

    Ancient Rome

    The city of Rome has, through tough fighting and wise diplomacy, become the leading power in the western Mediterranean

    .

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  • Ancient Rome

    Ancient Rome

    The city of Rome has, through tough fighting and wise diplomacy, become the leading power in the western Mediterranean

    .

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  • Turkey

    Turkey

    In the wake of Alexander the Great's conquests, Asia Minor is now divided between several Hellenistic kingdoms

    .

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  • Middle East

    Middle East

    The conquests of Alexander the Great have reshaped the map of the Middle East, and Greek-speaking kingdoms, founded by Alexander's generals, now cover the region

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history map of Europe 30BC

Europe
200BC - 30BC

The past two centuries have seen Rome come to dominate western Europe and the Mediterranean; its empire now covers Italy, Spain, Gaul, parts of North Africa, Greece and other parts of the Balkans, as well as large parts of the Middle East.

After a long period of civil wars and campaigns of conquest under such famous generals as Pompey the Great and Julius Caesar (who briefly invaded the island of Britain), peace now prevails across its empire.

Graeco-Roman civilization is rapidly spreading throughout the Roman world. Along its northern frontiers the legions confront hostile German tribes, who will, within a very few years (AD 6) inflict on them a crushing defeat. Nevertheless the Roman state is now amongst the most populous, prosperous and stable empires of ancient history.

Next map, Europe 200 AD

 

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  • Greece and the Balkans

    Greece and the Balkans

    The Greek city-states and kingdoms have fallen under the power of Rome

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  • Italy

    Italy

    The free inhabitants of Italy all now enjoy full Roman citizenship, and provide Rome with the bulk of its soldiers and officials

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  • France

    France

    The whole of the area of modern France has been conquered by the Romans

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  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    Roman armies have slowly conquered most of Spain

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  • Britain

    Britain

    The peoples of the British Isles have made their first appearance in written history with Julius Caesars' invasions of 55 and 54 BC

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  • Central Europe

    Central Europe

    Major population movements are occuring in this region

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  • North Africa

    North Africa

    North Africa has now largely fallen under the power of Rome

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  • Ancient Rome

    Ancient Rome

    The Roman empire now dominates the entire Mediterranean world

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  • Turkey

    Turkey

    Asia Minor has fallen under the power of Rome.

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  • Middle East

    Middle East

    The Middle East is now divided between the Roman and Parthian empires

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history map of Europe 200AD

Europe
30BC - 200AD

Over the past couple of hundred years the Roman empire has expanded considerably over the past 200 years. As well as covering Italy, Spain and Portugal, Gaul, and Greece, it now takes in Britain, all the Balkans, all of North Africa, and reaches far into central Europe.

The empire has brought peace to this vast region, bringing great and rare blessings to its fifty-million or so inhabitants. With peace and commerce, cities have prospered.

Beyond the imperial frontiers, the German peoples have been experiencing a period of major upheaval, which effects the Romans through a much increased pressure on their frontiers. Roman emperors are having to spend more and more of their time on campaign. This trend will only continue, and shortly the empire – and with it the Graeco-Roman civilization it shelters - will enter its long period of decline.

Next map, Europe 500 AD

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  • Greece and the Balkans

    Greece and the Balkans

    The Greek cities are in decline, though their glorious past is still revered

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  • Italy

    Italy

    Italy holds a privileged position within the Roman empire

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  • France

    France

    Roman civilization has become deeply entrenched throughout the area of modern France

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  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal have become thoroughly Romanized after centuries of Roman rule

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  • Britain

    Britain

    A Roman province now covers the southern half of the British Isles

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  • Central Europe

    Central Europe

    Central Europe is dominated by German and Sarmatian tribes

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  • North Africa

    North Africa

    North Africa is one of the most prosperous and Romanized parts of the Roman empire

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  • Ancient Rome

    Ancient Rome

    The Roman empire has given two centuries of peace to the Mediterranean world

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  • Turkey

    Turkey

    The cities of Asia Minor have prospered under the peace which Roman rule has brought

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  • Middle East

    Middle East

    One small part of the region, Judaea, has given birth to the new religion of Christianity, but has also seen the dispersal of the Jewish people from their homeland

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history map of Europe 500AD

Europe
200AD - 500AD

The past three centuries have seen the Roman empire experience a long decline, and by AD 500 it has shrunk to its eastern half. The western provinces have been overrun by German tribes, and a number of Germanic kingdoms have been established: the Visigoths, Burgundians and Franks divide Gaul between them, and the Visigoths and Seubi share the Iberian Peninsula. North Africa has been occupied by another German tribe, the Vandals, and southern Britain is being settled by north German peoples. Even Italy, the heartand of the old Roman empire, is now under barbarian rule.

Civilization has taken a major hit here, and society is experiencing huge changes. The city-based way of life enjoyed by the Romans is in steep decline in western Europe. However, both in what remains of the Roman empire, and in the Germanic kingdoms of the west, Christianity has become the official faith.

Next map, Europe 750 AD

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  • Italy

    Italy

    In Italy, Roman admininstration and society remains largely intact under the rule of the Ostrogoths

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  • France

    France

    Gaul is now divided amongst German-ruled kingdoms, but much of the old Roman civilization endures

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  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal have experienced much destruction, but the old Roman civilization endures under Visigothic rule

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  • Britain

    Britain

    The Roman province is no more, as is the Roman civilization which it nourished

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  • Central Europe

    Central Europe

    The rise and fall of the Huns has had a huge impact on this region

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  • North Africa

    North Africa .

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  • Ancient Rome

    Ancient Rome

    The Roman empire has lost its western provinces to barbarian invaders, but the eastern half remains intact

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  • Greece and the Balkans

    Greece and the Balkans

    The Balkans have been lost to Byzantine rule, and Slavs and Bulgars have settled the region.

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  • Turkey

    Turkey

    The cities of Asia Minor remain prosperous centres of classical civilization

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  • Middle East

    Middle East

    The Middle East is divided between the Eastern Roman empire and the Persian empire

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history map of Europe 750AD

Europe
500AD - 750AD

The past two and a half centuries have seen the Franks come to rule most of modern-day France and much of Germany. Their kings are active supporters of the Catholic church and its leaders, the Popes. The Franks will shortly intervene in Italy to safeguard a Pope against his enemies, the Lombards.

Pagan tribes still inhabit central, eastern and northern Europe. England is now divided amongst a group of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, with Celtic kingdoms to their north and west.

Most of Spain has been conquered by the vast Muslim Caliphate. To the East, the shrunken Roman empire (or Byzantine empire, as it should now be called) has also been battered by Muslim armies. Other enemies, pagan tribes from central Europe, have occupied most of the Balkans.

Next map, Europe 979

 

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  • Greece and the Balkans

    Greece and the Balkans

    The Balkans have been lost to Byzantine rule, and Slavs and Bulgars have settled the region.

    .

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  • Britain

    Britain

    A collection of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms now covers most of present-day England, and the rest of the British Isles is home to numerous Celtic tribes and kingdoms 

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  • North Africa

    North Africa .

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  • France

    France

    The Kingdom of the Franks now covers all of the old Roman region of Gaul.

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  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    Muslim forces from North Africa have conquered most of present-day Spain and Portugal.

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  • Italy

    Italy

    In Italy, long wars have caused massive destruction, and the peninsula is now divided between the Lombards and Byzantines

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  • Scandinavia

    Scandinavia

    Scandinavian society was experiencing change as regional kingdoms were beginning to replace the local chiefdoms.

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  • Central Europe

    Central Europe

    Another steppe people, the Avars, have dominated this region, and the Slavs have spread into lands previously inhabited by German tribes.

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  • Russia

    Russia

    The Khazars dominate the Ukrainian steppes

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  • Turkey

    Turkey

    Much of Asia Minor has been devastated by continuous warfare

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  • Middle East

    Middle East

    The Middle East has been conquered by Arab armies under the banners of a new religion, Islam

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history map of Europe 979AD

Europe
750AD - 979AD

The past two hundred years have seen the Frankish kingdom expand over much of Europe under its vigorous ruler, Charlemagne; but then, after his death, swiftly break up. The kingdom of France and the Holy Roman Empire have emerged from the wreckage.

Destructive invasions from outside - Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east and Arabs from the south - have hastened the disintegration of central power. In the widespread disorder a new, "feudal", society is taking shape.

Despite these troubles, Christendom is continuing to expand into central and eastern Europe (where the Rus state will shortly convert to Christianity), and the Balkans.

The Christian kingdoms of northern Spain have been able to chip away at Muslim power, but the British Isles have experienced massive Viking attacks.

Next map, Europe 1215

 


 
  • North Africa

    North Africa .

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  • Britain

    Britain

    Viking attacks have affected all the peoples of the British Isles, but in England they have been overcome by the Anglo-Saxons under the kings of Wessex

    .

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  • East Central Europe

    East Central Europe

    Central Europe has experienced great upheavals with the coming of the Magyars

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  • France

    France

    Internal disorder and Viking raids have brought chaos to the land of the west Franks, as royal authority declines and the power of local lords rises

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  • Greece and the Balkans

    Greece and the Balkans

    The Byzantines and the Bulgarians now compete for control of the Balkans

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  • Italy

    Italy

    Italy has become fragmented amongst several different states

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  • Scandinavia

    Scandinavia

    Scandinavian raiders and traders voyage far and wide in the great age of the Vikings

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  • Russia

    Russia

    The huge new state of Rus has been formed by the descendants of Viking traders

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  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    Muslim Spain is the most prosperous region of Western Europe

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  • Germany

    Germany

    The German tribes have come under the rule of the newly-founded Holy Roman Empire

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  • The Low Countries

    The Low Countries

    The Low Countries are divided amongst a number of semi-independent counties

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  • Turkey

    Turkey

    Asia Minor is the main recruiting ground for the army of the Byzantine empire

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  • Middle East

    Middle East

    The Islamic Caliphate is beginning to fragment

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history map of Europe 1215AD

Europe
979AD - 1215AD

The previous centuries have seen the coming of the feudal age to Europe. It has also seen the church, headed by the Popes in Rome, reach the height of its power. Few kingdoms in western Europe have escaped its impact. In some places (for example, France) the church's influence has strengthened royal power; in other places (Germany and Italy) it has gravely weakened it. In yet others (England) the clash between royal and church power has been dramatic but indecisive.

Despite these tensions, Christendom has continued to expand in northern, central and eastern Europe. In Spain, too, the Christian kingdoms have won territory from the Muslims. But Christendom's attempt to expand in the Middle East with a succession of great Crusades has failed: their most enduring result has been to undermine the strength of the Byzantine empire, Christendom's main bulwark against Muslim power in that quarter.

Next map, Europe 1453


 
  • Germany

    Germany

    The unity of the Holy Roman Empire has been undermined by civil wars

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  • North Africa

    North Africa .

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  • Britain

    Britain

    The British isles at the time of Magna Carta, when a line of French-speaking kings and their followers have established themselves as a ruling class in England, and are encroaching into Wales, Ireland and Scotland.

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  • France

    France

    Several able kings have gradually expanded royal authority within France, at the expense of the regional lords

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  • Scandinavia

    Scandinavia

    The Scandinavians have become Christians and are colonizing the Baltic coasts.

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  • East Central Europe

    East Central Europe

    Powerful nations are emerging in Central Europe

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  • Greece and the Balkans

    Greece and the Balkans

    The rivalry between the Byzantine empire and the Bulgars has continued, only ending with the sack of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade 1204.

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  • Italy

    Italy

    In Italy, the northern cities, above all Venice, are growing in wealth and power, while in the south Norman adventurers have created one of the most amazing kingdoms of the Middle Ages

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  • Russia

    Russia

    The Russian state fragments into separate principalities.

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  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    The Christian kingdoms advance as Muslim Spain fragments into many small emirates

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  • The Low Countries

    The Low Countries

    The beginnings of a centuries-long land reclamation effort is going on in the Low Countries

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  • Turkey

    Turkey

    The Turkish sultanate of Rum now rules in Asia Minor

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  • Middle East

    Middle East

    Islam has by now become the majority religion in the Middle East

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history map of Europe 1453AD

Europe
1215AD - 1453AD

The previous two centuries have seen Europe on the defensive. The Mongol conquest of Russia in the mid-13th century; the continuous warfare involving England, France and the Low Countries; continued political fragmentation in Germany and Italy; the terrible Black Death; widespread religious unrest, especially in central Europe; and in this year, 1453, the fall of the historic Byzantine city of Constantinople to the Muslim Turks, whose power is now reaching far up into the Balkans, have all sapped European self-confidence.

On the other hand, the Christian kingdoms of Spain have all but completed their conquests of Muslim territory; Portuguese sailors have begun their voyages of discovery; the Italian Renaissance is now under way; and the first European printing presses will soon be spreading new knowledge and ideas across the continent.

Next map, Europe 1648

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  • Germany

    Germany

    The Holy Roman Empire has now become a collection of hundreds of virtually independent states

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  • North Africa

    North Africa .

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  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    The Christian kingdoms advance as Muslim Spain fragments into many small emirates

    .

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  • Scandinavia

    Scandinavia

    The kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden are all ruled by one monarch

     

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  • Russia

    Russia

    The Russian states have come under the control of the Golden Horde

    .

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  • France

    France

    The kingdom of France has emerged victorious from the 100 Years War

    .

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  • Britain

    Britain .

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  • East Central Europe

    East Central Europe

    The union of Poles and Lithuanians under one crown creates a huge dual kingdom

    .

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  • Greece and the Balkans

    Greece and the Balkans

    The Balkans are falling under the rule of the Ottoman Turks

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  • Italy

    Italy

    In Italy, the Italian Renaissance is in full swing

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  • The Low Countries

    The Low Countries

    The dukes of Burgundy now rule the Low Countries

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  • Turkey

    Turkey

    The Ottoman empire captures the great city of Constantinople

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  • Middle East

    Middle East

    The Middle East has been ruled by a succession of conquerors from central Asia

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history map of Europe 1648AD

Europe
1453AD - 1648AD

The past two centuries have seen the Ottoman empire conquer far up into Europe. At the same time, however, explorers have opened up South and North America. to European colonization, and Africa and Asia to European trade. Meanwhile the Renaissance spread around Europe, and the great religious movement known as the Reformation convulsed the continent. Fierce wars of religion have left Europeans divided into two hostile camps: Scandinavia, the Low Countries and Britain are Protestant, while Spain and Portugal, Italy and central Europe have remained Catholic. Germany and (to a lesser extent) France are split between the two.

Paralleling the Renaissance and the Reformation has been the rise of powerful, centralized nation-states in Europe. Despite the upheavals, this period has laid the foundations for astonishing economic expansion over the coming centuries, as well as for the rise of modern science.

Next map, Europe 1789

 

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  • North Africa

    North Africa .

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  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    Spain is a united country with a vast overseas empire

    .

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  • France

    France

    The kingdom of France is now ruled by a highly centralized monarchy

    .

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  • Italy

    Italy

    Incessant conflict between the Italian states has led to the Peninsula coming under Spanish domination

    .

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  • Greece and the Balkans

    Greece and the Balkans

    The Balkans are now ruled by the Ottoman empire

    .

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  • East Central Europe

    East Central Europe

    Much of Central Europe is threatened by the Ottoman Turks

    .

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  • Russia

    Russia

    The Russians have freed themselves from the Golden Horde and have expanded far into Siberia

    .

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  • Scandinavia

    Scandinavia

    Sweden has become a leading European power

     

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  • Britain

    Britain .

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  • Germany

    Germany

    Germany has experienced the terrible 30 Years War

    .

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  • The Low Countries

    The Low Countries

    The prosperous new nation of the Netherlands has appeared on the map of Europe

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    click to view
  • Turkey

    Turkey

    Asia Minor is the centre of the Ottoman empire, one of the great empires of world history

    .

    click to view
  • Middle East

    Middle East

    The Ottoman empire now dominates most of the Middle east

    .

    click to view
history map of Europe 1789AD

Europe
1648AD - 1789AD

In the past century and a half, a movement known as the Enlightenment has gathered pace. The Enlightenment's emphasis on reason has acted as a powerful stimulus to science, as well as to new thinking on politics and society. It has had a deep influence on events across the Atlantic, where the founders of the new USA have designed an entire political system around Enlightenment principles.

The countries of Europe continue to fight amongst themselves. France, Holland and Britain compete with each other for overseas empires, while those of Spain and Portugal are in decline. Prussia and Austria jostle for influence in Germany, and Russia's presence is increasingly being felt in central and northern Europe. Italy remains weak and divided, and the Balkans are still ruled by the Ottoman empire.

Europe's expanding overseas trade has greatly increased the continent's wealth. By this time, indeed, the Industrial Revolution has started in Britain.

Next map, Europe 1837

 


 
  • North Africa

    North Africa .

    click to view
  • Britain

    Britain

    The British empire has started to expand around the world

    .

    click to view
  • East Central Europe

    East Central Europe

    Much of Central Europe is now divided between Austria and Prussia

    .

    click to view
  • France

    France

    France is on the verge of Revolution!

    .

    click to view
  • Greece and the Balkans

    Greece and the Balkans

    The Balkans remain under the rule of the Ottoman Turks

    .

    click to view
  • Italy

    Italy

    Italy has become a magnet for European aristocrats visiting it on the "Grand Tour"

    .

    click to view
  • Russia

    Russia

    Rulers such as Peter the Great and Catherine the Great have been modernizing Russia

    .

    click to view
  • Scandinavia

    Scandinavia

    Sweden has experienced decline as a European power

     

    .

    click to view
  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    Spain has become virtually a satellite of France.

    .

    click to view
  • Germany

    Germany

    Prussia has emerged to challenge Austria as the leading state in Germany

    .

    click to view
  • The Low Countries

    The Low Countries

    The Netherlands have become a centre of world-wide commerce

    .

    click to view
  • Turkey

    Turkey

    The Ottoman government has been weakened, both internally and externally

    .

    click to view
  • Middle East

    Middle East

    The Middle East experiences political weakness in both the Ottoman empire and Iran

    .

    click to view
history map of Europe 1837AD

Europe
1789AD - 1837AD

Following the French Revolution, Europe experienced more than twenty years of war. These saw the rise and fall of one of the great military commanders in world history, Napoleon Bonaparte. His attempts to impose his will on Europe only ended with his defeat in 1815, at the battle of Waterloo.

After the wars, the victorious powers cooperated in imposing order on Europe. Russia, Prussia and Austria divided central Europe between them; Prussia and Austria shared the leadership of Germany; and Austria dominated Italy. France, although vanquished in 1815, remained a major European nation.

Great Britain is now the leading naval power in the world. Under her protection, European (especially British) commerce now dominates the oceans. The Industrial Revolution is now spreading from Britain to the rest of Europe.

Next map, Europe 1871

 


 
  • North Africa

    North Africa .

    click to view
  • Britain

    Britain

    The British empire has expanded as a result of the Napoleaonic Wars

    .

    click to view
  • France

    France

    The French Revolution has changed France for good

    .

    click to view
  • Greece and the Balkans

    Greece and the Balkans

    In the Balkans, national agitation against Ottoman rule is growing

    .

    click to view
  • Italy

    Italy

    The movement for Italian independence and unity is growing

    .

    click to view
  • Russia

    Russia

    Russia emerged from the Napoleonic Wars as one of the great powers of Europe

    .

    click to view
  • Scandinavia

    Scandinavia

    Norway is now under the control of Sweden

     

    .

    click to view
  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    Both Spain and Portugal have lost their overseas empires in South America

    .

    click to view
  • Germany

    Germany

    The Holy Roman Empire is no more

    .

    click to view
  • The Low Countries

    The Low Countries

    The small country of Belgium has appeared on the map of Europe

    .

    click to view
  • East Central Europe

    East Central Europe

    All of Central Europe is now divided between Russia, Austria and Prussia

    .

    click to view
  • Turkey

    Turkey

    The Ottoman government has embarked on a remarkable programme of modernization

    .

    click to view
  • Middle East

    Middle East

    Some Middle Eastern governments are taking steps to modernize their countries

    .

    click to view
history map of Europe 1871AD

Europe
1837AD - 1871AD

The forces of nationalism have been at work in Europe over the past decades. They have created two major new countries, Germany and Italy. On the other hand they are threatening the stability of multi-national states, the Austrian (or Austro-Hungarian), Russian and Ottoman empires.

European society is being reshaped by the quickening pace of industrialization. By this date, Britain and Germany can properly be described as industrial nations, and other Europeans are not far behind. European domination of the rest of the world is entering a new phase, as a handful of powers, especially Britain, France and Holland - have started to use their industrialized military capacity to acquire extensive overseas territories in Africa, SE Asia and the Pacific.

Next map, Europe 1914

 


 
  • North Africa

    North Africa .

    click to view
  • Britain

    Britain

    The British empire has expanded vastly under Queen Victoria

    .

    click to view
  • East Central Europe

    East Central Europe

    Central Europe is divided between the Russian, Austro-Hungarian and German empires

    .

    click to view
  • France

    France

    France has been defeated in a war with Prussia

    .

    click to view
  • Greece and the Balkans

    Greece and the Balkans

    Greece has won its independence from the Ottoman empire

    .

    click to view
  • Italy

    Italy

    After many difficulties Italy has become a united country

    .

    click to view
  • Russia

    Russia

    Revolutionary ideas are spreading fast in Russia

    .

    click to view
  • Scandinavia

    Scandinavia

    Denmark has experienced traumatic defeat at the hands of Prussia

     

    .

    click to view
  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    Both Spain and Potugal have experienced political instability

    .

    click to view
  • Germany

    Germany

    Prussia has united the other German states within the new German Empire

    .

    click to view
  • The Low Countries

    The Low Countries

    Both Holland and Belgium are constitutional monarchies

    .

    click to view
  • Turkey

    Turkey

    The Ottoman empire is continuing to modernize itself

    .

    click to view
  • Middle East

    Middle East

    The Ottoman empire has tightened its grip on much of the Middle East

    .

    click to view
history map of Europe 1914AD

Europe
1871AD - 1914AD

The industrialization of European nations over the past decades has given their armed forces unmatched capability, and they have indulged in a frenzy of competition for overseas territory. Most of the world has become carved up amongst their empires. Britain and France have taken the lion's share, but Holland, Belgium, Germany and Italy also have substantial overseas possessions. The Russian empire has pushed out its borders in central Asia.

Expansion abroad has fuelled nationalist tensions at home. This has led to mutual fear building up between European powers, especially between Austria and Russia, both wanting to grab as much power and influence in the Balkans at the expense of a weakened Ottoman empire, and of each other. This year, 1914, sees these tensions spill over into full scale war.

Next map, Europe 1960

 


 
  • North Africa

    North Africa .

    click to view
  • Britain

    Britain

    The British empire is at the height of its power, but it is just about the enter the terrible World War 1

    .

    click to view
  • East Central Europe

    East Central Europe

    Central Europe remains divided between the Russian, Austro-Hungarian and German empires

    .

    click to view
  • France

    France

    France has a huge overseas empire

    .

    click to view
  • Germany

    Germany

    The German Empire is the most powerful state within Europe

    .

    click to view
  • Greece and the Balkans

    Greece and the Balkans

    The Ottoman empire has been driven from most of Europe

    .

    click to view
  • Italy

    Italy

    Despite weak government, Italy has an expanding industrial economy

    .

    click to view
  • Russia

    Russia

    Defeat at the hands of tiny Japan have highlighted the need for change in Russia

    .

    click to view
  • Scandinavia

    Scandinavia

    Norway is now an independent nation

     

    .

    click to view
  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    Portugal is now a republic

    .

    click to view
  • The Low Countries

    The Low Countries

    Belgium and Holland maintain their neutrality in the power-politics of Europe

    .

    click to view
  • Turkey

    Turkey

    The Ottoman sultans have maintained the modernizing policies of their predecessors

    .

    click to view
  • Middle East

    Middle East

    The British and French are increasingly active in the Middle East

    .

    click to view
history map of Europe 1960AD

Europe
1914AD - 1960AD

The past decades have seen the continent torn apart - and its map radically redrawn - by World War 1 (1914-18), World War 2 (1939-45), and now the Cold War. An American-led Western Europe includes Britain, France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, the Benelux countries, Norway, Denmark, Greece and Turkey; and a Communist-controlled East covers Russia (now the Soviet Union), the central European countries of Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Romania; and the Balkan nations of Yugoslavia and Bulgaria. The front line runs through Germany, which is now divided into a West and East. Austria, Switzerland and Sweden remain neutral.

The USA has poured economic aid into western Europe, which has set the nations here on a path to recovery, and indeed to unparalleled prosperity. Overseas, the years since World War 2 have seen the withdrawal of European nations from most of their empires in Africa, India, SE Asia and the Pacific well underway. Within Europe, a group of countries - France, West Germany, Italy and the Benelux countries - have formed the Common Market.

Next map, Europe 2005

 


 
  • North Africa

    North Africa .

    click to view
  • Britain

    Britain

    Britain has by now lost most of its empire

    .

    click to view
  • East Central Europe

    East Central Europe

    Eastern-central Europe is divided amongst several countries, most now under Soviet control

    .

    click to view
  • France

    France

    France has experienced the full brunt of two world wars

    .

    click to view
  • Germany

    Germany

    After defeat in two world wars Germany is now divided into a communist East and a democratic West

    .

    click to view
  • Greece and the Balkans

    Greece and the Balkans

    Most of the Balkans is under communist rule

    .

    click to view
  • Italy

    Italy

    After the defeat of Mussolini in World War 2, Italy has become a leading member of the European Community

    .

    click to view
  • Russia

    Russia

    Russia is now under the control of the communist party

    .

    click to view
  • Scandinavia

    Scandinavia

    Finland has had to fight hard against Russia for its independence

     

    .

    click to view
  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal are ruled by dictatorships

    .

    click to view
  • The Low Countries

    The Low Countries

    Belgium, Holland and Luxembourg have all experienced invasion and occupation by Germany during World War 2

    .

    click to view
  • Turkey

    Turkey

    The Republic of Turkey was founded by Kemal Ataturk

    .

    click to view
  • Middle East

    Middle East

    The Cold War has had a major impact on the Middle East

    .

    click to view
history map of Europe 2005AD

Europe
1960AD - 2005AD

The decades since 1960 have seen the collapse of communism in Europe (from 1989), the expansion of the Common Market - now called the European Union - and with it, the spread of democratic government to cover most European countries. Germany has been reunited, whilst the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia have fragmented amongst multiple nationalities. In the latter's case, this process was accompanied by violent ethnic cleansing and a short, sharp war involving NATO (1999).

 


 
  • North Africa

    North Africa .

    click to view
  • Britain

    Britain .

    click to view
  • East Central Europe

    East Central Europe

    All countries of East-central Europe are members of the EU

    .

    click to view
  • France

    France

    France is a leading member of the EU

    .

    click to view
  • Germany

    Germany

    Germany has become a united country again, its economy the most powerful in Europe

    .

    click to view
  • Greece and the Balkans

    Greece and the Balkans

    The Balkans have experienced bitter fighting between different ethnic groups

    .

    click to view
  • Italy

    Italy

    Despite a series of weak governments Italy has had a thriving economy

    .

    click to view
  • Russia

    Russia

    The Societ Union has now been replaced by a group of newly-independent countries

    .

    click to view
  • Scandinavia

    Scandinavia

    The Scandinavian countries are amongst the most prosperous nations in the world

     

    .

    click to view
  • Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal

    Spain and Portugal have become democracies and members of the EU

    .

    click to view
  • The Low Countries

    The Low Countries

    Belgium, Holland and Luxembourg are amongst the most prosperous countries in the world

    .

    click to view
  • Turkey

    Turkey

    Turkey is a stable and prosperous democratic republic

    .

    click to view
  • Middle East

    Middle East

    Arab-Israeli hostility has dominated Middle Eastern politics

    .

    click to view

    INSTRUCTIONS: Hover map for summary and tap to zoom. Press icons to change the date of the map. Drag timeline for more historical periods.