In the Yellow River region, farming, based on millet cultivation, is the backbone of the economy, and towns and villages dot the landscape. The larger settlements are surrounded by thick beaten-earth walls, an indicator of endemic warfare. Elaborate burials for the elite suggest that the region is home to competing chiefdoms, ruled by warlike aristocracies. Pottery shards from this period carry inscriptions which include composite ideographs, conveying simple meanings. These show that the Chinese system of writing is gradually developing.
In the Yangtze region, wet-rice cultivation predominates. As in the north, farming villages have become established here, often on lake sides where paddy fields can most easily be laid out.
In the hills and forests to the south of the Yangtze region, tribal peoples such as the Tai live lives largely based on hunting, gathering and fishing. Wet-rice cultivation is gradually penetrating this region as well, and farming settlements have reached the south China coast.
The Yellow river region of ancient China is now ruled by the Shang dynasty (1766-1122 BC), and is home to a flourishing Bronze Age civilization. The first real cities in East Asia, housing tens of thousands of inhabitants, have appeared here.
The Shang kings probably exercise real authority over only a part of the region, with subordinate lords and tribal chiefs ruling virtually independently in their own areas.
A system of writing, which in all essentials is the modern Chinese script, is in use and bronze technology is well developed. Indeed, the Chinese are already making some of the finest bronzes ever produced in world history.
Cultural influences from the north are bringing a more advanced material culture to the Yangtze region, and this is leading to population expansion. A distinctive, non-literate but materially advanced culture is developing here.
The Shang dynasty has been replaced by the Zhou (1122 BC). The Zhou had previously ruled a border territory regarded as semi-barbarian by the Shang court. However, the change of dynasty has seen no sharp decline in material culture.
The Zhou kings have distributed territory to a large number of princes of the Zhou clan and other loyal followers, and royal power has thus become divided amongst more than a hundred subordinate fiefs. At the same time, the Zhou state has expanded, both outwards into surrounding lands and also internally as Zhou lords annex “barbarian” territory still remaining within the borders.
In the Yangtze Valley, a mixed culture is growing up, in which Zhou and native features mingle. Further south, tribal peoples are coming under increasing pressure from the more settled peoples of the north, and some tribes begin migrating south and west, into South East Asia. There they will become the ancestors of the Mon and Khmer peoples.
By now, the many fiefs into which the state had been divided under the early Zhou have, through a process of warfare and annexation, been absorbed into a few larger political units. These can now fairly be called states, only loosely acknowledging the authority of the Zhou kings.
These states have developed well-organized armies, and sophisticated tax systems to pay for them, staffed by officials appointed for their ability and loyalty rather than their noble birth. Technological and economic advances have led to the expansion of commerce, the growth of towns, a flourishing merchant class, the introduction of metal coinage and, centuries before the west, the invention of cast iron. Into this fluctuating environment comes one of the most influential philosophers in world history, Confucius (551-479 BC). In this time of change he calls people back to their ancient duties of honour and obedience.
The organized state pattern of northern China has penetrated the Yangtze Valley. Peoples formally regarded as “barbarian” by the Zhou are being absorbed into Chinese culture. Throughout much of southern China, however, native peoples cling to their former way of life. A major people in southern China at this period are the Tais.
The past 300 years have been tumultuous for China. Indeed, this period in Chinese history is known as the age of the “Warring States”. The competition between the states increased, and armies grew much larger, with professional generals, often of humble origin, commanding massed ranks of infantry and cavalry. The smaller states were swallowed up in the larger, until only six powerful kingdoms were left. Then, starting in the 250's BC, one of these states, Qin, conquered all the others, one by one.
The first Chinese empire was thus established. The Qin emperor and his ministers imposed a rigid, ruthless centralization upon the vast country. Their empire lasted barely a generation, however, before it dissolved into anarchy. Out of this chaos one leader eventually emerged victorious.
The ruler, who takes the reign-name Gaozu, has adopted much the same centralized system of government as the Qin, but in a milder form. Taxes and labour services were less onerous than under his predecessors, and the laws less severe. He has thus successfully established his rule over the entire country, and the dynasty he founds, the Han, will rule China for 400 years.
The great Maurya empire has conquered most of the Indian sub-continent. click to view
Korea is covered by many warlike tribal kingdoms. click to view
Indian traders are bringing Hinduism, Buddhism and other elements of Indian civilization to South East Asia. click to view
The Han empire has expanded greatly, extending Chinese influence deep into central Asia. Under the emperor Wudi (141-86 BC), the Xiongu were subdued, and north-west China garrisoned and colonized; northern Korea was conquered and the annexation of south China completed.
Internally, the Han empire has seen nearly two centuries of peace and stability, with the vast country increasingly coming under the control of an elaborate and well-run bureaucracy. Officials are normally recruited from the wealthy landowning class. They are highly educated: under the Han, Confucianism has been installed as the official ideology of the ruling class, and their education is based on a rigorous study of the Confucian classics. Officials are promoted on recommendation, which brings many very able men to high office.
The peace of the Han era has encouraged commerce and industry to flourish, and agriculture has also expanded. Much new land has been brought under cultivation, especially in border regions; and continued technological advance has seen the introduction of, amongst other innovations, the seed drill and the wheelbarrow.
The Mauryan empire has fragmented into many small states, and invaders from Central Asia now occupy much of northern India. click to view
Northern Korea is occupied by the Han empire. click to view
The first urban civilization of South East Asia has appeared, in Burma. click to view
About 200 years after the founding of the Han empire, a succession of weak emperors culminated in the usurpation by the chief minister Wang Mang (reigned AD 9 – 27). He attempted some radical reforms, which caused first confusion, then a destructive civil war, and finally the restoration of the Han dynasty. This was followed by years of reconstruction, renewed economic expansion and restored imperial power. It was during this period that paper was invented, to meet the needs of the civil servants.
Latterly, however, the foundations of the Han dynasty have been undermined by a succession of child-emperors. This has resulted in unchecked factionalism at court, and in the provinces, an increasingly corrupt bureaucracy. As a direct result, widespread peasant revolts have broken out, causing immense destruction.
At the same time, a renewed barbarian threat has emerged with the reunification of the Xiongnu nomads.
The Han dynasty is now in its death throes, and has only twenty years to go before it succumbs to these varied dangers.
The Kushana empire is a centre for the spread of Buddhism into central and eastern Asia. click to view
Powerful and well-organized kingdoms are beginning to emerge in Korea. click to view
Indian-style kingdoms and principalities are appearing in South East Asia. click to view
The Han empire broke up in AD 220, to be followed by centuries of division, invasion and, in the north, barbarian rule. Unlike with the western Roman empire, however, the fall of the Han empire did not lead a steep decline in material civilization.
The Northern Wei, who are of Mongolian origin and who have ruled northern China since their conquest of AD 425-435, have brought more than half a century of peace and stability to the region. Of all the barbarian dynasties, they have pursued a policy of Sinicisation most purposefully, giving their state a much greater degree of strength and durability than its rivals and predecessors.
Southern China has been unified under one government since the fall of the Han. Despite the succession of weak, faction-ridden dynasties, this region, spared the upheavals to the north, has seen considerable economic expansion and population growth.
Under the Gupta empire, north Indian civilization reaches a peak of achievement, while in south India there is a developing trade with SE Asia. click to view
Powerful and well-organized kingdoms are beginning to emerge in Korea. click to view
Indian civilization exerts a deep influence upon the kingdoms and peoples of South East Asia. click to view
After centuries of division, China was again unified by the Sui dynasty in 589. This dynasty did not last long, however, and after a brief civil war the great Tang dynasty came to power in 618.
The Tang emperors brought stability and good government to China, as well as pushing out its frontiers further than ever before. The great Taizong (624-49), who set the dynasty on strong foundations, was succeeded by less capable emperors, but this allowed one of the most remarkable personalities in all Chinese history to exercise power, the empress Wu (649-705: first as concubine of the emperor, then as wife, and finally, after 690, in her own right). Under her son, the emperor Xuanzong (712-56), the Tang empire has reached a peak of power.
Culturally, Xuanzong’s reign is later seen as a golden age, particularly in the field of poetry. However, there are causes for concern. Over-powerful generals now control the frontiers, and the elderly emperor is increasingly withdrawing from affairs of state, under the spell of a beautiful concubine. This situation will very soon lead to disaster.
In 755, a powerful frontier army commander, An Lushan, revolted and seized the capital, Loyang. His rebellion was not crushed until 763, after causing great destruction and loss of life throughout northern China. The later Tang emperors were unable to assert the same degree of control as their predecessors had done, and the centralized rule of the early Tang was never fully restored. Eventually, the familiar tale of child-emperors, factionalism at court and widespread peasant revolt led to the fall of the Tang dynasty in 907, and China simply fragmented into several states.
This division did not last nearly as long as that following the fall of the Han dynasty, however, and by 969 China was largely reunified under the Song dynasty.
In northern China, two barbarian dynasties reign, the Liao and the Western Xia (the latter founded as a recognized dynasty in 1038, but existing as a state from the mid-10th century). In the Liao, a small ruling nomad group governs the state along Chinese lines, and under them Chinese gentry families participate fully in the Chinese culture of the period. The Western Xia is a more purely nomadic tribal confederation.
The Song dynasty has been on the throne since the late tenth century, though it no longer rules the entire country. In 1135 a major invasion by the Jurchen, a people from central Asia, took the entire northern part of the country from the Song. These have formed the Jin empire, which, while ruled by a small minority of nomadic descent, functions as a Chinese state.
The Song dynasty (or “Southern Song” dynasty, as it was thereafter called) has been left with by far the richest and most populous part of the country, however, and here the past century has seen unprecedented economic growth and population expansion. A revolution in farming, based largely on wet-rice cultivation, has greatly increased crop yields, and has been accompanied by dramatic commercial and industrial expansion, both within China itself and throughout South East Asia. This has been the great age of Chinese technological innovation, with printing, gunpowder, shipbuilding techniques, the compass, paper money and porcelain all either appearing for the first time or seeing great advances.
In their internal policies, the Song emperors have expanded the examination system as a means of recruiting officials, and China is now administered by a class of professional scholar-officials.
Rajput princes rule much of northern India, while in the south the Chola empire has flourished. click to view
The Khmer empire is at the height of its power, and the great temple of Angkor Wat has been built. click to view
A military government now rules Korea. click to view
The Mongols conquered, first northern China, in the 1230s, and then the rest of the country in the 1270s. The Mongol emperor, Kublai Khan (reigned 1260-94), presented himself as a legitimate Chinese ruler, of the Yuan dynasty, and maintained the traditional Chinese bureaucracy, though with Mongols in the topmost positions.
After Kublai Khan, the Mongol weakened. From the 1330s, an increasing number of rebellions culminated in the expulsion of the Mongols from China. A native Chinese dynasty, the Ming, was installed on the throne.
The Ming have restored the Confucian bureaucracy, along with the examination system, to its predominant position in the state. In the early 15th century they briefly sent out a number of major naval expeditions to South East Asia and beyond, reaching as far as Africa. In Inner Asia, the Mongols remain a dangerous threat to China, and the Ming government has completely refurbished the Great Wall.
Internally, the country is largely tranquil, and the economy and population is expanding strongly.
The Ming dynasty emperors, for the most part nonentities, fell increasingly under the control of eunuch factions at court. These factions were frequently in bitter conflict with the scholar-officials of the imperial bureaucracy. The turbulence of life at the centre meant that some deep-seated problems in the administration of the Ming empire were not addressed properly.
In the 16th century the Ming dynasty showed the classic symptoms of dynastic decline: corrupt and ineffective administration in the provinces, famine and floods inadequately dealt with, peasant revolt and invasion from across the frontiers.
One such group of invaders are a people from the northern steppes who, having developed a Chinese-style state in Manchuria (hence the name by which they are known to history, the Manchus), have taken advantage of rising chaos in China to march on the capital and seize the throne (1644). They have thus established a new dynasty, the Qing, and are now in the process of pacifying the entire country under the regent, Dorgon.
The Qing (Manchu) dynasty has ruled China for the past 150 years, though it was not until 1680 that the country was fully in their hands. Although of foreign origin, the Qing have established an orthodox Confucian state, complete with bureaucracy, examination system, and law code. However, Manchu officials serve alongside Chinese in all the topmost posts, and the Chinese male population are required to wear their hair in a queue.
For more than a century the Qing throne has been occupied by just three very able rulers, the Kangxi emperor (1667-1722), the Yongzheng emperor (1722-35) and the Qianlong emperor (1736-95). These emperors have pushed out the frontiers of the empire to include vast areas of central Asia, never previously under Chinese rule. They have centralized power, ensured high standards of administration, and presided over a prolonged period of peace. Due largely to this peace, but also to new crops introduced from America (maize, sweet potatoes, peanuts), migration to hitherto under-developed areas and the bringing of much new land into cultivation, and productivity gains in Chinese farming methods, the 18th century has seen a doubling of the population. From 150 millions in the late 17th century it has grown to 300 millions. Commerce has expanded considerably, especially long-distance trade within the empire, and industries such as porcelain, steel and textiles have flourished.
The Mughal empire has declined and the British empire is growing. click to view
Dutch commercial and political influence now spreads far and wide throughout the islands and coasts of South East Asia. click to view
Korea is a tributary state of the Chinese empire. click to view
Despite the expansion of food production in China, by the end of the 18th century there were clear signs that it was not able to keep pace with the continuing rise in population. Each acre was having to feed more people, and standards of living - especially amongst already-poor peasants - were slipping. These adverse trends manifested themselves in the age-old Chinese fashion, rural disorder and banditry leading to full-scale peasant uprisings. Such uprisings began to break out in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The White Lotus rebellion took the Chinese army several years to bring under control (1796-1804). However, at this date these episodes were comparatively local affairs.
At the same time, the Chinese government was getting increasingly concerned with the rise in opium smuggling into the country, and the spreading addiction to the drug at all levels of society. Opium was being brought to China by British merchants in ever-larger quantities, both because the Chinese government placed severe restrictions of legitimate trade and because the Chinese economy was so self-sufficient that it had little need for the kind of goods British merchants had to offer. Such was the scale of the problem that by 1837 the Chinese government was concluding that the Opium trade had to be stamped out once and for all.
Tensions over trade between China and Britain, particularly over the role of British merchants in bringing illegal opium into the country, led to the outbreak of the first Opium War (1839-42). In this, the superiority of Western forces over Chinese told, and the treaty which ended it was the first of several "unequal treaties" China would be forced to sign, favorable to foreign interests. The most enduring result of this one was the establishment of Hong Kong as a British base.
Continuing population growth and spreading poverty led to the Taiping rebellion breaking out in 1850. Within a couple of years, the Qing government had lost control over a large part of southern and central China. Then, with the rebels undefeated and another major revolt breaking out further north, China found herself at war with Britain (and now France) again (1858-60). This led to the emperor's Summer Palace in Beijing being burnt down - and of course, to another "unequal treaty". More rebellions broke out in various provinces, and rebel forces roamed, apparently at will, through the length and breadth of China.
By the time the Taiping rebellion had been crushed (1864), 20-30 million lives had been lost. There followed a period of rebuilding, which was remarkably successful, given the circumstances, and included the resettlement of large areas of depopulated lands. Some attempts at modernizing China's armed forces were also made.
In 1894-5, a war with Japan ended in humiliating defeat for China. Japan gained Taiwan and other territories, and other foreign powers joined in a free-for-all at China's expense: they demanded (and got) more ports along the coast of China and claimed wide "spheres of influence" around them.
These developments undermined support for the Qing dynasty, now widely seen as puppets of the foreign powers, and they deepened the already bitter hatred of foreigners within China. The last years of the 19th century saw the rise of a particularly violent anti-foreign movement known as the Boxers, and many Western missionaries were killed. The Qing court seemed to endorse the movement, and the foreign community in Beijing came under threat from Boxer groups. The Western powers sent an international force to protect their compatriots, which sacked Beijing (1901). The foreign governments then demanded a huge indemnity from China.
At this point the Qing court enacted a wide range of modernizing measures, but these were too little, too late to save the last of China's imperial dynasties. In 1911 some Qing policies aimed at bolstering their rule sparked opposition throughout the country, and local garrisons and provincial assemblies one by one seceded from the empire. The commander of the army in Beijing declared a Republic on January 1st, 1912.
British rule in India is at its height. click to view
The European powers have shared out most of South East Asia amongst themselves. click to view
Defeat at the hands of tiny Japan have highlighted the need for change in Russia. click to view
Korea is now under Japanese rule. click to view
Within a few years of its proclamation in 1912, the Chinese republic had lost control of the country, and China fell into chaos. Some measure of order was restored by the Nationalist Party (the Goumindang) in 1926, but then a bitter struggle broke out between it and the rising Communist Party. The Nationalists gained the upper hand, hard pressed by Goumindang forces, the Communists carried out a gruelling treck - the "Long March" - from their bases in southern China, to link up with more of their forces to the north (1934-6). This event consolidated Mao Zedong's leadership of the Party.
For the next ten years, until the end of World War 2, all Chinese forces were committed to fighting the Japanese. Immediately this fighting was only concluded, however, the struggle between the Communists and the Goumindang resumed. By 1949 the Communists had control of all China except for Taiwan, to which the Goumindang had fled. The Communists proclaimed the formation of the People's Republic of China.
Under Communist rule, China has been transformed. The gentry class, for more than 2000 years the mainstay of imperial China, has been eliminated, farmland had been collectivized, women have been given equal rights with men, and under Mao's "Great Leap Forward", China is straining to create an industrial socialist utopia.
The British have left the Indian subcontinent, which is now divided amongst different nations. click to view
The countries of South East Asia have become independent from their Western masters. click to view
Korea is now divided into North and South Korea. click to view
The "Great Leap Forward" (1956-60) ended in the deadliest famine of the 20th century. Some years of economic recovery followed before China suffered a second great upheaval, the Cultural Revolution (1966-76). "Red Guards" - school and university students - roamed the country meting out violence and extreme humiliation to anyone they deemed too conservative. Half a million lives were lost, and millions of other lives were greatly disrupted.
Mao Zedong died in 1976. Immediately the pent-up disgust with the radicals saw the rise of Deng Xiaoping, who dominated Chinese politics until his death in 1997. He opened up China's economy to the outside world, and since that time China has seen the greatest economic expansion in history. It has not been accompanied by political liberalization, as was shown most famously in 1989, when a massive student demonstration in favour of democracy in Beijing's Tiananmen Square ended in a violent clamp-down. Nevertheless, countless millions of people have been lifted out of poverty and gained a measure of prosperity, which their parents and grandparents could never have dreamed of.
The return of Hong Kong (1997) and Macao (1999) to China finally ended European rule on Chinese soil.
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