The History of Ancient Egypt, Part 1/5: 3500BC

One of the great civilizations of world history, that of Ancient Egypt, is taking shape in the Nile Valley.

- Irrigation

- A civilization in the making

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ancient egypt map 3500 bc

Map of Ancient Egypt 3500 BC


In the thousands of years after the end of the last Ice Age, North Africa had a much wetter climate than it does today. It was a well-watered grassland, supporting a varied wildlife. Hunter-gatherers roamed the region, exploiting the flora and fauna to be found there.

Over time the climate of North Africa began to get dryer. Over thousands of years the wet grasslands gave way to the Sahara Desert that we know today - a vast, dry waste, hostile to human societies of any kind. However, through the region which we now call Egypt, flowed the river Nile.

Near the Nile, life could survive. In fact, it could thrive. By around 5000 BC the Nile Valley was a swampland of reed beds, pools, and plenty of wildlife, all watered by the great river rolling by.

The drying of the surrounding terrain was pushing more and more people onto the narrow strip of land along the river banks. Archaeological evidence suggests a big expansion of population in the Nile Valley from around this time; and crucially, they had adopted farming. This had spread down from the Middle East, and was the only way that the growing number of people could live on such a limited area of land. They were already cultivating barley and emmer, which would be the staple crops of ancient Egypt, along with beans, peas and host of other plants.


Despite the plentiful water, the geography of the Nile Valley offered major challenges to these early farmers. The Nile floods each year. This allowed plant life to thrive - for a time. If the water is allowed to flow on to the sea, the water levels drop, leaving the land to the mercy of the searing sun. Crops shrivel and die.

To feed the growing population, therefore, the flood waters of the Nile had to be channelled into pools and tanks, where they could be stored. As the waters receded, enough could then be available to keep the crops growing throughout the growing season. Bountiful harvests would have allowed a growing population to be fed.

Nile Valley  - Flooding of the Nile  Image by James Webster


To construct and maintain the dykes, dams, ponds, irrigation canals and drainage ditches needed to hold the flood water back, and then guide it along chosen paths to where it was needed, required a huge amount of labour. It also called for many communities to work together in a coordinated effort, on a (for that time) huge scale and over a wide area. This in turn required what we today would call "management". In those days, it would be seen as the sacred authority of powerful leaders.

A Civilization in the Making

Taming the flood waters of the Nile conferred another great benefit on the land. Its waters brought a rich load of mud from the lands further south, through which the long river flowed. During the annual flood, much of this was deposited as a wonderfully fertile soil on the valley floor. This allowed a very dense population to grow.

By around 3500 BC, the effort of irrigating and farming the land, carried out over generations upon generations, had reshaped the social and physical geography of the Nile Valley. The river was now flanked by numerous farming villages, surrounded by a dense network of irrigated fields. These villages were ruled by to powerful chiefdoms, each covering a section of the long Nile valley. Within these chiefdoms, a social elite had emerged, apparent to modern archaeologists in the refined grave goods recovered from the period. These were royal officials, serving sacred rulers, set in authority over the rest of the population to ensure that the work was carried out properly, and that the flood waters of the Nile were shared out fairly. Large, well-planned towns with fortified walls and brick-built buildings had also appeared. These developments represent a fundamental upgrading of material culture in the country.

In the course of their work, these officials were developing a range of capabilities which would later allow the civilization of ancient Egypt to flourish. These included organizing and controlling large numbers of people; deploying advanced techniques in construction, engineering and mathematics; and, possibly even by this early date, an early form of writing.

Within these chiefdoms, then, the characteristic features of Ancient Egypt, one of the great civilizations of world history, were beginning to take shape.


Continue: Part 2: Ancient Egypt 3500 BC - 2500 BC looks at the rise of the Old Kingdom of Egypt, and the building of the Great Pyramids!



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Civilization Overview: Ancient Egypt 

 Overview of Ancient EgyptLocation of Ancient EgyptAncient Egyptian ArtAncient Egyptian ArchitectureAncient Egyptian TechnologyAncient Egyptian GovernanceAncient Egyptian Economy and SocietyAncient Egypt in World History

The History of Ancient Egypt:

Part 1 - Ancient Egyptian History, up to 3500 BC: Hard LabourA Civilization in the making

Part 2 - Ancient Egyptian History 3500 BC - 2500 BCUnificationThe Old KingdomThe Pyramid Age

Part 3 - Ancient Egyptian History 2500 BC -1500 BCThe First Intermediate Period c.2150-2080 BC, The Middle Kingdom c.2074-1759 BC,  The Second Intermediate Period c.1759-1539 BCReunification

Part 4 - Ancient Egyptian History 1500 BC- 1000 BC A Strong Monarchy, An Imperial Power, International Trade and Diplomacy, Egyptian Imperialism, Religious Upheavals, The Hittite Challenge, New Threats Impotence Abroad c.1153-1069 BC, Weakness at Home 

Part 5 - Ancient Egyptian History 1000 BC - 500 BC: Kings from the South, Assyrian Occupation 656 - 639 BC, National Revivial, The Babylonian Threat, Persian Conquest 525 BC